Software

Communications Technology: Global Information Infrastructure Janice Kyle-Walker Introduction We are in the midst of a global information revolution driven by the convergence and proliferation of information and communication technologies. The telecommunications sector is changing at warp speed, driven by technological innovation that results in new equipment and services, and also by new entrants and alliances between companies with experience in a wide range of information industries from telec
Operating Systems Anonymous An operating system is the program that manages all the application programs in a computer system. This also includes managing the input and output devices, and assigning system resources. Operating systems evolved as the solution to the problems that were evident in early computer systems, and coincide with the changing computer systems. Three cycles are clear in the evolution of computers, the mainframe computers, minicomputers and microcomputers, and each of these
Herodotus Lisa Bowen-Moore Herodotus (484-424 BC ?) a Greek historian, known as the father of history, who was the first historian to apply critical evaluation to his material, while also recording divergent opinions. He made his prose style resemble the finest poetry by its persuasiveness, its charm, and its utterly delightful effect. Although his writings have been praised, their trustworthiness has been questioned both in ancient and modern times. After four years in Athens, he traveled widel
An Observation of The Aeneid, Book II Lisa Bowen-Moore The Romans, unlike the Greeks were not gifted in abstract thought. They constructed no original system of philosophy, invented no major literary forms, and made no scientific discoveries. Yet, they excelled in the art of government and empire building, they created a workable world-state and developed skills in administration, law, and practical affairs. In the Punic Wars, the Roman republic defeated the Carthaginians in North Africa and Rom
Welcome To Hell Bill Mason Welcome to Hell. Please let us enslave you. We'll give you a free t-shirt if you fill out this credit card application... You can drive home in this brand new car, with no payments until 2000... It's so much easier to not worry about these details. We'll take care of them for you. All we ask is that you send in your payment every month like a good slave. No, no, don't read books. Libraries are closing more and more everyday anyway because they're obsolete, now supersed
The Internet: its effects and its future Eva Kotsi Internet, its effects in our lives and the future of the Internet: The Internet is, quite literally, a network of networks. It is comprised of ten thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to modest PCs in people's homes and offices. Despite the recent hype, the Internet is not a new phenomenon. Its roots lie in a collection of computers tha
The Digestive System [email protected] The digestive system is a group of organs that perform the process by which food, containing nutrients, is eaten and broken down into different components. This breakdown makes it possible for the digested material to pass through the intestinal wall into the blood stream. The digestive process contains many different steps that take place in many different organs. The first step of digestion begins at the mouth, where the food enters the mouth. Saliva is
History of C++: Origins and Examples Devon Hudson O'Dell Origins of C++ What are C++ and OOP? C++ is an advanced, high-level programming language (?Computer languages?) that is used to develop powerful applications for Microsoft? Windows?, many Linux environments, and other well-known and widely used operating systems. C++ is quickly becoming the standard language for commercial software development (Oualline). OOP, an abbreviation for object-oriented programming is simply code that ?attempts to
The Internet Anonymous Imagine life today without the convenience of the Internet. People would actually have to get up out of their comfortable chairs, get in their cars, and drive to the store, the library, the mall, or wherever they wanted to go. Wouldn't that just be a shame? But the Internet has not always been used for the entertainment, in the beginning it was only used by military personnel for communication reasons. In fact, if you were not a computer expert or a genius, you could not e
Why Software Systems Fail Pancham Bansal 1.0 Introduction In this report I will be concentrating on the failure of software systems. To understand why software systems fail we need to understand what are software systems. Software systems are a type of information system. This is because a software system is basically a means for hardware to process information. Flynn?s definition of an information system is: An information system provides procedures to record and make available information, co
Bill Gates Philip Shuman Bill Gates, cofounder of the Microsoft corporation, holds 30.7 percent of its stock making him one of the richest people in the United States. He was the marketing and sales strategist behind many of Microsoft's software deals. Their software became the industry standard in the early 1980s and has just increased in distribution as the company has grown, so much that the Federal government is suggesting that Microsoft has violated Sherman and Clayton antitrust acts. Bill
Z.E.N. works - NetWare 5 Elvis Andreu Zero Effort Networks (Z.E.N. works) is a great new tool in NetWare 5, that makes the network administrator?s job a lot easier by allowing him to spend less time at each user workstation. To be able to use the Z.E.N. works these are the minimum hardware requirements: - Processor: 486/33 or higher - Memory: 16 MB (for Windows 95); 24 MB (for Windows NT) - Hard disk space: 4 MB (workstation; 24 MB (full station) Z.E.N. works needs to be installed on the server
The Aborted Contract The issue of abortion is emotionally loaded and this often makes for poor, not thoroughly thought out arguments. The questions: Is abortion immoral and Is abortion a murder are often confused. The pregnancy (and the resulting foetus) are discussed in terms normally reserved to natural catastrophes (force majeure, in legal lingo). At times, the embryo is compared to cancer: after all, they are both growths, clusters of cells. The difference, of course, is that no one cont
The Matrix It is easy to confuse the concepts of virtual reality and a computerized model of reality (simulation). The former is a self-contained Universe, replete with its laws of physics and logic. It can bear resemblance to the real world or not. It can be consistent or not. It can interact with the real world or not. In short, it is an arbitrary environment. In contrast, a model of reality must have a direct and strong relationship to the world. It must obey the rules of physics and
The Revolt of the Poor - The Demise of Intellectual Property Three years ago I published a book of short stories in Israel. The publishing house belongs to Israel?s leading (and exceedingly wealthy) newspaper. I signed a contract which stated that I am entitled to receive 8% of the income from the sales of the book after commissions payable to distributors, shops, etc. A few months later, I won the coveted Prize of the Ministry of Education (for short prose). The prize money (a few thousand DMs)
The Classification of Cultures Culture is a hot topic. Scholars (Fukoyama, Huntington, to mention but two) disagree about whether this is the end of history or the beginning of a particularly nasty chapter of it. What makes cultures tick and why some of them tick discernibly better than others ? is the main bone of contention. We can view cultures through the prism of their attitude towards their constituents : the individuals they are comprised of. More so, we can classify them in accordance wi
Death, Life and the Question of Identity A classical point of departure in defining Death, seems to be Life itself. Death is perceived either as a cessation of Life - or as a transit zone, on the way to a continuation of Life by other means. While the former presents a disjunction, the latter is a continuum, Death being nothing but a corridor into another plane of existence (the hereafter). Another, logically more rigorous approach, would be to ask Who is Dead when Death occurs. In other wor
Future Perfect Many futurologists - professional (Toffler) and less so (Naisbitt) - tried their hand at predicting the future. They proved quite successful at predicting major trends but not as lucky in delineating their details. This is because, inevitably, every futurologist has to resort to crude tools such as extrapolation. The modern day versions of biblical prophets are much better informed - and this, precisely, seems to be the problem. The cluttered information obstructs the outlines of
Internet: A Medium or a Message? The State of the Net: An Interim Report about the Future of the Internet Who are the participants who constitute the Internet? - Users - connected to the net and interacting with it - The communications lines and the communications equipment - The intermediaries (e.g. the suppliers of on-line information or access providers). - Hardware manufacturers - Software authors and manufacturers (browsers, site development tools, specific applications, smart agents, searc
The Solow Paradox The PRODUCTIVE HARDWARE The world is debating the Solow Paradox. Named after the Nobel laureate in economics, it was stated by him thus: You can see the computer age everywhere these days, except in the productivity statistics. The venerable economic magazine, The Economist in its issue dated July 24th, quotes the no less venerable Professor Robert Gordon (one of America's leading authorities on productivity) - p.20: ...the productivity performance of the manufacturing s
- Name of the consignee or ?To Order? (of the shipper) together with endorsement of the shipper - Name of vessel - Port of loading, final destination and is re-loading required - Name of parties to be notified upon arrival to the port of discharge - Marks and numbers stamped on the packages - Abbreviated description of the goods (weight, number of units and volume / mass) - How many original copies of the MBL are there and is the presentation of all original copies required to in order to relea
Polar Concepts The British philosopher Ryle attacked the sceptical point of view regarding right and wrong (=being in error). He said that if the concept of error is made use of ? surely, there must be times that we are right. To him, it was impossible to conceive of the one without the other. He regarded ?right? and ?wrong? as polar concepts. One could not be understood without understanding the other. As it were, Ryle barked up the wrong sceptic tree. All the sceptics said was that one cannot
Metaphors of the Mind The brain (and, by implication, the Mind) has been compared to the latest technological innovation in every generation. The computer metaphor is now in vogue. Computer hardware metaphors were replaced by software metaphors and, lately, by (neuronal) network metaphors. Such attempts to understand by comparison are common in every field of human knowledge. Architects and mathematicians have lately come up with the structural concept of tensegrity to explain the phenomenon o
Psychophysics It is impossible to rigorously prove or substantiate the existence of a Soul, a psyche. Numerous explanations have been hitherto offered: - That what we, humans, call a soul is the way that we experience the workings of our brain (introspection experienced). This often - leads to infinite regressions. - That the soul is an epiphenomenon, the software result of a hardware complexity (much the same way as temperature, volume and - pressure are the epiphenomena of a large number of ga
Legitimizing Final Causes The word telos in ancient Greek meant: goal, target, mission, completion, perfection. The Greeks seem to have associated the attaining of a goal with perfection. Modern scientific thought is much less sanguine about teleology, the belief that causes are preceded by their effects. The idea is less zany than it sounds. It was Aristotle who postulated the existence of four types of causes. It all started with the attempt to differentiate explanatory theories from theor
Turing Machines and Universes In 1936 an American (Alonzo Church) and a Briton (Alan M. Turing) published independently (as is often the coincidence in science) the basics of a new branch in Mathematics (and logic): computability or recursive functions (later to be developed into Automata Theory). The authors confined themselves to dealing with computations which involved ?effective? or ?mechanical? methods for finding results (which could also be expressed as solutions (values) to formulae). Th
The Napster Debate ethan 1. Background The Napster software (http://www.napster.com), launched early in 1999, allows internet users to share and download MP3 files directly from any computer connected to the Napster network. The software is used by downloading a client program from the Napster site and then connecting to the network through this software, which allows sharing (uploading and downloading) of MP3 files between all users connected to the network. While Napster does not condone copyr
An American Tragedy and the futility of the American Dream Tony Zarembski An American Tragedy is an intriguing, frighteningly realistic journey into the mind of a murderer. It is a biography of its era. And, it is also historical fiction. But what makes this novel a classic? While society has changed dramatically since 1925, Dreiser's novel, which shows the futility of The American Dream and the tragedies that trying to live it can cause, accurately summarizes social mores of this and any time
Microsoft: Monopoly or Great Bussinessmen? Allen Since 1990, a battle has raged in United States courts between the United States government and the Microsoft Corporation headed by Bill Gates. What is at stake is money. The federal government maintains that Microsoft's monopolistic practices are harmful to United States citizens, creating higher prices and potentially downgrading software quality, and should therefore be stopped, while Microsoft and its supporters claim that they are not breakin
History of the Computer Industry in America Unknown Only once in a lifetime will a new invention come about to touch every aspect of our lives. Such a device that changes the way we work, live, and play is a special one, indeed. A machine that has done all this and more now exists in nearly every business in the U.S. and one out of every two households (Hall, 156). This incredible invention is the computer. The electronic computer has been around for over a half-century, but its ancestors have b
Slavery Unknown We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness (Thomas Jefferson). Slavery in America stems well back to when the new world was first discovered and was led by the country to start the African Slave Trade- Portugal. The African Slave Trade was first exploited for plantations in that is now called the Caribbean, and ev
The Role of Propaganda in the Nazi Takeover Unknown When one thinks of the term propaganda, what comes to mind? Would it bring a positive response? Would it bring a negative response? When one thinks of propaganda in association with the Holocaust, what comes to mind? A positive response or a negative response? Most likely a negative response. Why is propaganda any different from what any political party or regime does, namely to disseminate its views? Is propaganda simply the name we gi
The way Technology has changed Man: Hopkins and Wordsworth Unknown Where do you want to go today?. We all know this slogan of the most advanced software company in the world, Microsoft. The question we will soon have to answer is were we can't go today. William Wordsworth, a quaint man from the late 18th century and early 19th century, understood the need for change in this world and expressed a pre-mature concern for the future that still applies to this very day in The world is too much wit
Millenium Bug Unknown The year 2000 is practically around the corner, promising a new era of greatness and wonder . . . as long as you don't own a computer or work with one. The year 2000 is bringing a Pandora's Box of gifts to the computer world, and the latch is slowly coming undone. The year 2000 bug is not really a bug or virus, but is more a computer industry mistake. Many of the PC's, mainframes, and software out there are not designed or programmed to compute a future year ending in d
The Evolution of Apple Computer Let's take a trip back in time and review the evolution of a computer company. It's not IBM or Microsoft. This company is Apple Computers, Incorporated. In the year 1976, before most people even thought about buying a computer for their homes. Back then the computer community added up to a few brainy hobbyist. So when Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs sold a van and two programmable calculators for thirteen hundred dollars and started Apple Computers, Inc., in Jobs gar
The Anti-Trust Case Against Microsoft Unknown Since 1990, a battle has raged in United States courts between the United States government and the Microsoft Corporation out of Redmond, Washington, headed by Bill Gates. What is at stake is money. The federal government maintains that Microsoft's monopolistic practices are harmful to United States citizens, creating higher prices and potentially downgrading software quality, and should therefore be stopped, while Microsoft and its supporters claim
How Can Artificial Intelligence Help Us? Unknown Recently, the media has spent an increasing amount of broadcast time on new technology. The focus of high-tech media has been aimed at the flurry of advances concerning artificial intelligence (AI). What is artificial intelligence and what is the media talking about? Are these technologies beneficial to our society or mere novelties among business and marketing professionals? Medical facilities, police departments, and manufacturing plants have al
Artificial Life Unknown Artificial life (commonly called a-life) is the term applied collectively to attempts being made to develop mathematical models and computer simulations of the ways in which living organisms develop, grow, and evolve. Researchers in this burgeoning field hope to gain deeper insights into the nature of organic life as well as into the further possibilities of COMPUTER science and robotics (see ROBOT). A-life techniques are also being used to explore the origins and chemica
The Computer Unknown Only once in a lifetime will a new invention come about to touch every aspect of our lives. Such a device that changes the way we work, live, and play is a special one, indeed. A machine that has done all this and more now exists in nearly every business in the U.S. and one out of every two households (Hall, 156). This incredible invention is the computer. The electronic computer has been around for over a half-century, but its ancestors have been around for 2000 years. Howe
A Computerized World Unknown Since the first computer was made in the late fifties, the technology has developed extremely. Computers which took the place of a living-room then, are now being made in creditcard-formats. More and more areas are being taken over by the computer. As computers are capable of handling large amounts of data in a very short time, they are well suited for wordprocessing. I guess that it won't be long till all the paper-archives are replaced by magnetic tapes and diskett
Computers Unknown A common misconception about computers is that they are smarter than humans. Actually, the degree of a computer?s intelligence depends on the speed of its ignorance. Today?s complex computers are not really intelligent at all. The intelligence is in the people who design them. Therefore, in order to understand the intelligence of computers, one must first look at the history of computers, the way computers handle information, and, finally, the methods of programming the machine
Computer Viruses Unknown Introduction In the past decade, computer and networking technology has seen enormous growth. This growth however, has not come without a price. With the advent of the Information Highway, as it's coined, a new methodology in crime has been created. Electronic crime has been responsible for some of the most financially devastating victimizations in society. In the recent past, society has seen malicious editing of the Justice Department web page (1), unauthorized acces
Computer Technology Unknown A computer is an electronic device that can receive a set of instructions or program and the carry out this program by performing calculations on numerical data or by compiling and correlating other forms of information. (Computer Encarta). It also performs calculations and processes information with astonishing speed and precision. Computer Technology has improved our lives. It will continue to affect our future which will lead to an easier, less complicated lifest
Internet battle between phreaks and administrators Unknown Thesis: Even from it's humble beginnings, the Internet has always been a battlefield between phreaks and administrators The Internet is a wondrous place. Practically anything you could ever want is available on the Net. It's like a big city, it has the highly prestigious areas, and the sex-ridden slums. It has the upstanding citizens, and it has the criminals. On the Net, crime is more abundant than in a large city, though, mainly becaus
Object-Oriented Database Management Systems Unknown The construction of Object-Oriented Database Management Systems started in the middle 80's, at a prototype building level, and at the beginning of the 90's the first commercial systems appeared. The interest for the development of such systems stems from the need to cover the modeling deficiencies of their predecessors, that is the relational database management systems. They were intended to be used by applications that have to handle big and
Internet Censorship Unknown Thesis: Government Censorship would damage the atmosphere of the freedom to express ideas on the Internet; therefore, government should not encourage censorship. Introduction I. In the Internet community, there is a large volume of technical terms. For this reason, it is first necessary to examine the terminology specific to Internet. 1.The internet is a world wide computer network. 1.Electronic mail (email), which is one component of the Internet, approximates person
Multimedia Unknown As a technology, it is called multimedia. As a revolution, it is the sum of many revolutions wrapped into one: A revolution in communication that combines the audio visual power of television, the publishing power of the printing press, and the interactive power of the computer. Multimedia is the convergence of these different professions, once thought independent of one another, coming together to form a new technological approach to the way information and ideas are shared.
Internet Censorship Threatens Freedom of Speech Unknown Thesis: The vast cyber-frontier is being threatend with censorship from the government. Internet censorship should be left up to the individual not the governments discretion. I. Censoring the Internet. A. Clinton passes the C.D.A. B. Our rights as Americans. C. Exon's victory. D. What's really online. E. Strike to free expresson on Compuserve. II. Where the Internet stands now. A. Judges Panel. B. Congress and other's opinions. C. Backgrou
How Technology Effects Modern America - US Wage Trends Unknown The microeconomic picture of the U.S. has changed immensely since 1973, and the trends are proving to be consistently downward for the nation's high school graduates and high school drop-outs. Of all the reasons given for the wage squeeze - international competition, technology, deregulation, the decline of unions and defense cuts - technology is probably the most critical. It has favored the educated and the skilled, says M. B. Zu
Economic Consequences of Software Crime Unknown In 1996 worldwide illegal copying of domestic and international software cost $15.2 billion to the software industry, with a loss of $5.1 billion in the North America alone. Some sources put the total up-to-date losses, due to software crime, as high as $4.7 trillion. On the next page is a regional breakdown of software piracy losses for 1994. Estimates show that over 40 percent of North American software company revenues are generated overseas, ye