Toulmin's Theory Model


This movie talks about the crusades to gain Jerusalem back from the Moslem army that was lead by the great sultan Saladin. At the beginning of the movie the Moslems hear about the misfortunate Moslems that are treated badly in Jerusalem, consequently, Saladin takes over Jerusalem in a battle with the Christian leader Rhene who was in charge of these actions of killing the Moslems. Rhene's widow goes to Europe seeking help from all the Christian kings, claiming that Moslems kicked the Christians out of Jerusalem and killed there women and children. The European kings prepare a crusade, lead by Richard the lion heart, king of England. Most of the kings didn't think only of having revenge for their fellow Christians. But they think of keeping the treasures of the orient from being lost to Saladin. The crusaders won many battles on their way to Jerusalem, killing many Moslems, by the use of an invincible towers that resists flamed arrows. Consequently, the Moslem leader Saladin thinks of a way to trick the enemy army, by leading them to a trap. The Moslem leader succeeds in his mission, winning the battle and killing many of the Christian's army. The scene begins as the Richard watches the dead bodies of his army at night, then he enters the tent where the meeting among the kings, and then tries to oppose the decision of having a truce with Saladin. The Christian kings are gathered in a tent where they are discussing their status after the last battle, which they were defeated. Richard asks the European kings in their meeting the importance of having a truce with the Muslims.

Saying that Saladin is not an easy enemy to defeat, and that we underestimated his cleverness in the issues of war. A French Nobel knight says "we still have time to teach Saladin a lesson". Richard mumbles saying "too many dead Christian bodies every where I look". The king of France, (king Feelebe), says "that a truce is just wasting time, so we have to continue moving towards Jerusalem". The Nobel French knight says "our forces are winning and we should continue moving towards Jerusalem, Richard says in sorrow, that time belongs to the tortured people who values life because they face death every day not like the kings. Who are safe from harm. Christina, Rhene's widow, replies, "our forces are winning and our prove is that we occupied lots of Arabic states as we are moving towards Jerusalem, in the last few months." Richard speaks in anger and tells her "what about the victims, we need a truce to give us more time to plan well, also to re-enforce our forces". Feelebe king of France loudly speaks in a serious manner, "a new plan would take more time, and we don't have that". Richard argues "shouldn't we consider the number of the thousands of the Christian that are being killed." Then Richard threatens that he will widow his forces if the kings don't approve the truce idea. Christina whispers to the king of France, saying that there is no chance for them in winning the war without Richard. King of France (Feleebe), says "if we all think as Richard thinks then we will not retrieve Jerusalem in the right time". King Richard gets angry. The rest of the kings support the French king (Feleebe).

Finally they have a truce. Toulmins model is applied to that scene, (Stephen, British philosopher), Toulmin's model is a popular pattern of message organization, which is based on an analysis of the way in which people actually make decisions. (Text 228-229) Toulmin's pattern is valuable because it represents how do the people thinks. Consequently it allows analyzing the very complex argument and to be placed into an effective message. Toulmin's pattern has six elements. Shown in an example studied from the text. The elements are:

The Sources are (Feleebe the French king, the French knight, Christina the widow of the ex-ruler of Jerusalem). The Receivers are Richard and the rest of the Christian kings in the meeting) Here, the message is two-sided, face to face verbal communication. Between the sources and Richard, making the rest of the kings to be the audience.

Evidence any data, observations, personal opinions, case histories, or other information relevant to the issue under construction, in the example from the text "the federal deficit is up" and