Society

What is meant by society?
People express their nature by creating and re-creating an organization which guides and controls their behavior in various ways. This organization is called society, which liberates and limits the activities of men, sets up standards for them to follow and maintain: whatever the imperfection and tyrannies it has shown in history in human history; it is a necessary condition of every fulfillment of life. Society is a system of usage and procedures, of authority and mutual aid, of many groupings and divisions, of controls of human behavior and liberties. It is the web of social relationships, and it is always changing.

Why societies were organized?
Human societies are often organized according to their primary means of subsistence: social scientists identify hunter-gatherer societies, nomadic pastoral societies, horticulturalist or simple farming societies, and intensive agricultural societies, also called civilizations. Some consider Industrial and Post-Industrial societies to be separate from traditional agricultural societies.
Societies can also be organized according to their political structure: in order of increasing size and complexity, there are band societies, tribes, chiefdoms, and state societies.

The physical condition of social relationship
Society is a changing pattern of social relationships. To understand what a social relationship is we have to contrast the social relationship with physical relationship. For example if we get the relationship between fire and smoke or earth and sun, each of these is affected by the existence of the other, but the relationship is not social. The psychical condition is missing. The sun and earth in no intelligible sense aware of the presence of one another. There relationship is not in any way determined by the mutual awareness. Without this recognition there is no social relationship or society. Society exists only where social beings ?behave? towards one another in ways determined by their recognition of one another. Any relations so determined we may broadly name ?social?.



The range of social relationships
Social relationship varied as society is complex. There are different relationships such as voter to candidate which is a political relationship, employee to employer an economical relationship, friend to friend which is a friendly relationship. ?Social? is borne out when we note all the terms a language use to name the many kinds of social relationships with men. Eg:- personal, impersonal, antagonistic, economical, political, friendly and so on.
A majority of social relationships involve a principle that the sense of community or belonging together. Sociologists study both the conditions that unite and those that separate human beings. If there were no co-operative undertakings by man, there would be no social systems, no society. So the relationships which a central to sociology are those which involve both mutual recognition and the sense of something held or shared in common.

Society not confined to man
Not only humans but animals too have society of many degrees. Eg:- The social organization of insects, such as ant and bee. It has been contended that wherever there is life there is society, because life means heredity and a society can arise out of presence of other life. But in the lower stage of life, social awareness, if it exists, is extremely dim and the social contact often extremely fleeting. Among all higher animals there is a very definite society, coming out of the requirements of their nature and conditions involved in the continuation of their species. Though we concern only about society between human beings, there are societies among animals of different species as well.

Society involves both likeness and difference
As most believe family is know as the first society in some form. That is because the sex relationship is a primary and essential type of social relationship. It is clear that this relationship involves both likeness and difference in the beings whom it relates.
Likeness and difference are logical opposites, but with many sociological distinctions, their objective manifestations are related to each other. Without a likeness and the sense of likeness there could be no mutual recognition and no society too. For a society to exist there should be resembles among one another up to some extent, in body and mind, who are close enough or able to understand. In primitive contemporaries the sense of likeness is focused on kin-membership but in modern societies social likeness has broaden out.
Difference also is a part of society as likeness. If all people were alike, their thought were alike, the social relationships among them will