1.Patricians ? the wealthy landowners

2. Plebeians ? small farmers, trades people, crafts workers and debtors.

3. Equestrians- businessmen

4. Gauis Marius- a military general who used the employed to further his career. He recruited an army from the poor and landless. They took fighting more seriously

5. Civil war- fighting within a countries borders

6. Dictators- a ruler who has complete control over an empire

7. Marcus Licinius Crassus- was the richest man in Rome. With Caesar and Pompey they created the first triumvirate. He had patrician support

8. Julius Caesar- one of the most famous military dictators. He ended the roman republic. Believed the republic could not rule the vast empire successfully He won the support of some plebeians. The size of the senate was increased to better represent the Rome provinces

9. Gauis Magnus Pompey- Had all the plebeians support. Was a major military general. He was also in the Triumvirate

10. First Triumvirate- This was created so that Caesar could successfully have the whole entire empire under control. Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey were all dictators. Crassus dies, then Caesar starts civil wars with Pompey to become the leader of Rome

11. Marcus Brutus- killed Caesar because he thought. Caesar was trying to crown himself as king

12. Marc Anthony- Caesars friend and chief general. A new civil war erupted when Brutus tried to rule Rome. .

13. Octavian/ Caesar Augustus- the grand nephew and adopted son of Caesar, joined forces with Anthony to put down Brutus and his allies. They both ruled until Cleopatra brought on another civil war. Octavian became the 1st emperor of Rome

14. Queen Cleopatra- Queen of Egypt Made an alliance with Anthony to take control of Rome

15. Battle of Actium- sea battle in 31 B.C. Octavian defeated Cleopatra and Anthony?s fleet

16. Pax Romana- peace, security, and cultural accomplishment in Rome for 200 years

17. Tiberius- 14- 37 A.D. Successor of Augustus, ruled very wisely

18. Caliugla- 37-41 A.D. insane and cruel ruler. He was murdered by the senate and military

19. Claudius- 41- 54 A.D. (Caligula?s uncle) was a wise and efficient emperor who added Britain to the empire.

20. Nero- 54-68 A.D. he was insane, he murdered his wife and mother. He was suspected of causing the great fire that destroyed ? of Rome. He blamed this on the Christians and ordered their execution.

21. Marcus Aurelius- 161-180 A.D. one of the best emperors he protected Rome from invasion

22. Commodus- 180-192 A.D. preferred to fight in an arena as a gladiator to solve his problems Rome began to decline

23. Dicoleian- 284-305 A.D. divided the empire into the Eastern and Western

24. Constantine- 324- 337 A.D. reunited the empire together until his death.

25. Constantinople- during 330 A.D. Constantine moved to Byzantium and named it Constantinople

26. Han Empire- was a great political and military power in the eastern hemisphere

27. These 3 kingdoms formed after the collapse of the Han Dynasty WEI- South SHU- Upper Yangtze River WU- Lower Yangtze River

28. Celts- tribes scattered throughout Europe, developed great knowledge of iron for tools and weapons. Germans- farmers and herders who migrated from Scandinavia Huns- Barbarians that were herders located in the lands north of China

29. Eastern and western kingdoms of Rome- Diocletian divided the empire up. The western side was weak and poor. The eastern side was wealthy and strong.

30. Druids- could read and write in Latin and Greek. Bards- memorized the Celts history and myths