Reading Notes Metamorphoses Book 1 (1-28) The story begins with Ovid praising the gods and telling the reader how the world was created. Next comes the history of the world as Ovid explains the ages of gold, silver, bronze and iron and how each of these different ages differed from each other. Later in this story he tells of how Jove interacted with each of these ages. During the final age, Jove disguises himself as a human in order to see whether or not all the sin on the earth is true saying "It takes too long to list the crimes I saw--/ Rumors were less amazing than the truth" (9). In seeing that the earth truly was a horrid and merciless place Jove not only transforms one who tried to betray him into a wolf because of his thirst of blood, but also enacts the first instance of revenge that is seen in this story which is the decision to destroy the race of mankind and start over. The next story is of Jove flooding the earth in his act of revenge due to the humans sin. This monstrous example of revenge brings up the question of whether or not this is an act of justice or of pure cruelty. Deucalion and Pyrrha are the only survivors of the flood and are tasked with bringing mankind back by walking around and "as the wind flows/ scatter your mother's bones" (14). They follow the instruction and throw the pebbles on the ground which soon grow into men and women. This might symbolize that the new humans are to be made of mother earth, by humans themselves. The story of Apollo and Daphne consists of Apollo being shot by Cupid's arrow and chasing after Daphne, who was shot with an anti-love arrow, making her run away from Apollo. This causes Daphne to run to her father and beg him to changer her, so he transforms her into the Laurel tree of which whose leaves symbolize high class and victory. This next story of Io brings upon the theme that love is tragic and the violent theme of sex. Jove goes down to earth and rapes the woman Io and turns her into a cow when Juno comes to investigate. This rape shows that Ovid is not afraid to talk about these kinds of acts. This also shows that violence between the gods and humans seemed to be a very persistent topic as many of these stories show that the gods are vicious towards mankind. Another instance of revenge is when Juno puts a madness spell on Io in order to punish Jove. This also brings up another theme that females are either full of revenge or are innocent girls running from gods. In addition to all of these themes, there is yet another theme that is seen and that is the one of sex. This theme describes that sex is not an act of love, but an act of lust. Book 2 (29-58) The next story is of Phaethon a boy who wished to drive his fathers chariot of light across the sky. He was allowed to, however he ended up burning up an entire area of earth and creates the Sahara Desert. Phaethon is then killed by Jove due to his recklessness and in order to stop the child from destroying more. This also brings up a theme of the male vulgarity and recklessness, as many men in this book contain traits that would be considered arrogant, such as Phaethon. The next story is that of Castillo. Yet again Jove rapes another innocent girl name Castillo, and yet again Juno becomes vengeful and turns her into a bear. Once her son, Arcas, grew to be 16 he encountered the bear and tried to kill it, however Jove stopped him and turned both of them into constellations so that the crime will not occur. This simultaneously made them immortal among the stars which was yet another anger point of Juno. This story also brings up the idea of women being innocent and running away from gods yet again, and also showing more revenge from the hands of Juno. The next story, that