Major events that caused change:
· Islam rises, Islamic empire emerges
· Spread of Neo-Confucianism in China (A religion of Confucianism and Buddhist mix)
Schism in Christianity : East/ West churches divided into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox; Divided over issue of icons
Nomadic Groups: Mongols and Bedouins
Long Distance Trade & Trade Routes-- (Silk Roads)
The Black Death
Mongol Empires
China\'s expansions and dynasties -- (Tang, Song, Ming Dynasties)
Byzantine Empire rise & fall

Political Institutions in Western Europe:
Feudalism: Kings ruled over knights. Knights served as warriors under kings. Gained rights for serving under kings, such as land. (decentralized agrarian society with a noble-reatiner-serf hierarchy based on protection/cultivation/land grants)
Byzantine Empire : Developed in Eastern half of Roman Empire. Ruled as Eastern Orthodox. Capital was Constantinople. Centralized state. Justinian-- ruler that made the empire prosperous. Justinian code developed that was a set of clear, thorough laws. Used Cryllic alphabet. Sacked during Fourth Crusade. (1202-1204)
Charlemagne (ruled 768-814): Carolingian Empire, his main accomplishment. Named emperor in 800. Did not want to strain relations with Byzantine Empire, but challenged their rule with his western european rule.
Vikings : Nomads from Northern Europe. Dominated with boats carefully crafted to navigate oceans and rivers. Created a colony in North America called "Newfoundland" by Leif Ericsson. (Remember Spongebob?) There powerful, quick raids in western and eastern europe contributed to the creation of feudalism. (Defense for provinicial lands) Their raids also caused the collapse of the Carolingian rule.
Schism : In 1054, Pope and Patriach excommunicated each other. This was a division of the West and East. The Roman Catholics were the West, and the Byzantines were the East. Divided into Roman Catholic church (pope) and Eastern Orthodox church (Patriarch). Byzantines thought they should rule western Europe. Although, Charlemagne challenged Byzantine rule because he ruled western europe, which the Byzantines wanted. Remember Iconoclasm-- the breaking of icons. Both churches disputed over which figures or icons to worship in churches, fought about their own religious powers/rights, etc. Roman Catholics produced icons, Byzantines did not.
The fight for control of Roman Catholicism.
The Crusades (1095-1270): Holy wars. Started by Pope Urban II. Mission: Recapture Palestine from and Jerusalem from Muslims. Jerusalem fell in 1099 to crusaders. After Fourth crusade that sacked Constantinople in the Byzantine, they established Roman Catholic rule until 1261. Byzantine fell. Was one of the few succesful crusades. Total of eight crusades.
The Crusades.

Political Institutions in Eastern Europe:
Japanese Feudalism : Shoguns ruled over Provincial lords. Samurai: warriors that served under Provincial lords. Could never overrule the Shoguns because Samurai powers were very decentralized.
Western European Feudalism (Knight) vs. Eastern Feudalism (Samurai).

Mongol Empire :Chinggis Khan. United Mongol tribes. Ruthless. After death, empire was split in four. Khubilai Kahn. No central government. Relied on equestrian skills. Ruthlessly killed most of all the lands they raided so there would be no resistance. United Asia, Middle East, parts of Europe. Linked socities of Eurasian lands that increased trade.
Tang Dynasty (618-907): Tang Taizong. Experienced stability under his rule. Early Tang was successful. Had communication through system of roads and runners throughout dynasty. Equal-field system. Gun powder founded. Metallurgy techniques founded. Paper money. Irrigation systems throughout.
Tang coin: showed off new metallurgy techniques and the use of money throught the dynasty.
Song Dynasty(960-1279) : Reorganized China after Tang collapse. Least militarized. Not powerful. Concerned more on industry, education. Song Taizu, known for being honest, effective ruler. Confucianism became popular throughout empire. Worked on inventions; Iron nails, ships, canvas/bamboo sails, rudders, the compass.
Yuan Dynasty(1279-1368): One and only dynasty ruled by foreigners: Mongols. Khubilai Khan was emperor. Mongols and Chineses culture traditions clashed because of how different they were. Yuan did not embrace Chinese culture at all. Chinese not allowed to be in government, only Mongols, and any other foreigners were. Soon there rule died down with revolts from Chinese. Eventually, Mongols let go of China because of how corrupt it became.
Ming Dynasty(1368- 1644): Ruled by Emperor Hongwu. Led the Chinese rebellions during the Yuan dynasty. Rid China of any remaining Mongol influence. Tight centralized rule. Mandarins and Eunuchs made the Bureaucracy. Promoted agricultural production.
Mali Empire: Islamic empire from Bantu people in Africa. Sudiata, first ruler (1230-1255), lion prince. Assembled army