Visual arts
Art history spans from prehistoric times to the twentieth first century. However the focus for this case study is from the time period of the High Renaissance (1450 ? 1530) to the painting movement or time period of Abstract Expressionism (1950-1960).
High Renaissance
The Term Renaissance means rebirth referring to the rebirth of interest into art and the involvement of new ideas being an artistic revolution. The High Renaissance occurred during the time period of 1450 to 1530 AD and is described as the radical and comprehensive change that took place in European culture, especially in Rome. It took place at the end of the 15th and 16th century and brought about the demise of the Middle Ages and the values of the modern world. The High Renaissance represented the unity of talent concentrated in the same area with art of a unified effect of pictorial representation or architectural composition, increasing the presence of a work of art. The High Renaissance in Italy was the high point of Renaissance art as that was where art works with religious subject matters and symbols were being commissioned by Popes and private collectors. Painting especially reached its peak of technical capability, affluent artistic imagination and heroic composition. Forms, colours and proportions, light and shade effects, spatial harmony, composition, perspective, anatomy - all are handled with total control and a level of accomplishment detail. We find it in the works of the greatest artists ever known: the mighty Florentines, Leonardo da Vinci (whom painted the Mona Lisa on the left) and Michelangelo; the Umbrian, Raffaello Sanzio; along with the great Venetian masters Titian, Tintoretto and Veronese.

Baroque was the next art painting movement after the Renaissance, although the style was seen in Italy during the 1500?s it was not until after in the 1600?s when it became popular and swept through the rest of Europe. Baroque art is considered to be from 1600 to 1750 approximately and began to appear in colonial Latin American for the duration of the 1700?s. Baroque art rebelled against the traditional comportment style of Renaissance art. Baroque artists strived to make their work more emotional, appealing to all the senses with variety and movement while also displaying contrasted values and depicted bold embellishments. During the baroque period, a movement called the Counter Reformation began to stir religious enthusiasm throughout Europe. The baroque style of art was used to create churches that expressed the drama and emotion of the time. Baroque painters worked on larger scales and painted more freely. Baroque painters included: Michelangelo de Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrant and Diego Valzquez. Baroque sculpture characterised a tremendous amount of movement, during this time sculptures began to use plaster and stucco. The great sculptor of this time was Gain Lorenzo Bernini of Italy.
Romanticism refers to the art movement specific to the art produced between 1750 and 1850 in Europe and North America. It originated in Western Europe and was a reaction against the social and political normal ideas of the time and a revolt towards the strict rules of classicism. The new Romantic attitude started to distinguish culture and influenced many art works in Western civilization. Generally romantic artists were inspired and fascinated with painting nature, the genius, their passions and inner struggles, their moods, and their heroes. It contained subject matter predominantly of heroic events and dramatic landscapes, which is romanticised through the use of sweeping brushstrokes to enhance movement. They also explored human nature and personality, the folk culture, the national and ethnic origins, the medieval era, the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the diseased, and even satanic in their works being the first of the art world to paint and investigate these ideas or subject matter, making imagination as the key source of artistic freedom. The Romantic art movement was heavily influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, medievalism and the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution; it essentially corresponded to the sense of rapid and dynamic social change that arose in the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. Some artist?s of the romanticism are George Stubbs, William Blake, John Margin, John Constable, JMW Turner, and Sir Thomas Lawrence. Caspar David Friedrich.
Social Realism
Social Realism occurred only in the 19th century referring to the art works produced in the 1840 ? 1900 time period. Social Realism was a change from imaginary subject paintings in the movement of