Animal Rights Dev One of the most touchy aspects of our relationship with animals is the use of animals in laboratory sciences. Some manufactures of cosmetics and household products still conduct painful and useless tests on live animals, even though no law requires them to do so. Some people, called anti-vivisectionists, are at one extreme in their concern. They want an abolition of all experiments on live animals. At the other extreme there are those who say that it is quite all right for us t
Human Rights Dev Human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent. Human rights are what make us human. When we speak of the right to life, or development, or to dissent and diversity, we are speaking of tolerance. Tolerance will ensure all freedoms. Without it, we can be certain of none. The raging ethnic cleansing in Kosovo is an example of intolerance. The Serbians will not tolerate the Albanians at any cost. They are forcing them from their homes, turning the streets into killing f
Is Government Interference Right? Anonymous Should government have the right to interfere in our private lives? Does being part of a representative democracy mean that we abdicate our freedom to make our own choices in the name of the good of all? Should the government have the right to interfere in our private lives? Democracy guarantees freedom. One might then argue that a government should allow people to act according to their own free will. But there are two sides to every coin. Absolute in
The Benefits of Science and Technology Anonymous Man, powered by his imagination and inquisitive character, has wondered he mechanisms of Nature since time infinite. This quest for the truth, the ways in which his surrounding works, has led to many a scientific discoveries and innovations. Since the art of making fire and creating handcrafted tools, our civilization has come a long way. Science and Technology are making advances at an amazing rate. From telephones to the Internet, calculators to
Communists in China enna Why were the Communists able to come to power in China? The Communists were able to come to power principally because of the policies and actions used by the Guomindang of which the CCP (Chinese Communist Party) took advantage. However in addition to this, there were also significant factors such as the conditions during the beginning of the twentieth century complications in the republic China and the Japanese War (1937-45), which led to the vulnerability and insufficie
How And Why Rugby has Developed from a Traditional form to its Modern day Equivalent james heath Introduction Rugby, also known as Rugger, is a football game played with an oval ball by two teams of either 15(Rugby Union) or 13(Rugby League) players each. The object of the game is to score as many points as possible by carrying, passing, kicking and grounding an oval ball in the scoring zone at the far end of the field -- called the in-goal area. Grounding the ball, which must be done with downw
Nationalism saloonface One person or a group of people can take on a major role of the unification process that brings upon nationalism for their country. To get a better understanding of what nationalism is, one must learn the meaning of ?nationalism.? Nationalism is the devotion to the interests or culture of a particular nation. Nationalism is a striving force that can help a country thrive. There are also different ways that a country can achieve nationalism. Two different people/organizatio
The Aborted Contract The issue of abortion is emotionally loaded and this often makes for poor, not thoroughly thought out arguments. The questions: "Is abortion immoral" and "Is abortion a murder" are often confused. The pregnancy (and the resulting foetus) are discussed in terms normally reserved to natural catastrophes (force majeure, in legal lingo). At times, the embryo is compared to cancer: after all, they are both growths, clusters of cells. The difference, of course, is that no one cont
Titanic The film "Titanic" is riddled with moral dilemmas. In one of the scenes, the owner of Star Line, the shipping company that owned the now-sinking Unsinkable, joins a lowered life-boat. The tortured expression on his face demonstrates that even he experiences more than unease at his own conduct. Prior to the disaster, he instructs the captain to adopt a policy dangerous to the ship. Indeed, it proves fatal. A complicating factor was the fact that only women and children were allowed by the
Notes on the Economics of Game Theory Consider this : Could Western management techniques be successfully implemented in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) ? Granted, they have to be adapted, modified and cannot be imported in their entirety. But their crux, their inalienable nucleus ? can this be transported and transplanted in CEE ? Theory provides us with a positive answer. Human agents are the same everywhere and are mostly rational. Practice begs to differ. Basic concepts suc
The Revolt of the Poor - The Demise of Intellectual Property Three years ago I published a book of short stories in Israel. The publishing house belongs to Israel?s leading (and exceedingly wealthy) newspaper. I signed a contract which stated that I am entitled to receive 8% of the income from the sales of the book after commissions payable to distributors, shops, etc. A few months later, I won the coveted Prize of the Ministry of Education (for short prose). The prize money (a few thousand DMs)
The Fourth Law of Robotics Sigmund Freud said that we have an uncanny reaction to the inanimate. This is probably because we know that - despite pretensions and layers of philosophizing - we are nothing but recursive, self aware, introspective, conscious machines. Special machines, no doubt, but machines althesame. The series of James bond movies constitutes a decades-spanning gallery of human paranoia. Villains change: communists, neo-nazis, media moguls. But one kind of villain is a fixture in
The Impeachment of the President of the USA In the hallways of the Smithsonian, two moralists are debating the impeachment of the President of the United States of America, Mr. William Jefferson Clinton. One is clearly Anti-Clinton (AC) the other, a Democrat (DC), is not so much for him as he is for the rational and pragmatic application of moral principles. AC (expectedly): "The President should be impeached". DC (no less expectedly) ; "But, surely, even you are not trying to imply that he has
Psychology as Storytelling Storytelling has been with us since the days of campfire and besieging wild animals. It served a number of important functions: amelioration of fears, communication of vital information (regarding survival tactics and the characteristics of animals, for instance), the satisfaction of a sense of order (justice), the development of the ability to hypothesize, predict and introduce theories and so on. We are all endowed with a sense of wonder. The world around us in inexp
Last of the Mohicans Matt Sherman The book begins in the middle of the French and Indian War in upper New York State near the Hudson River and Lake Chaplain. General Webb has just gotten word from an Indian that Moncalm and the French are going to attack Fort William Henry and that Colonel Munro will not be ale to keep the fort because he only has one thousand men and that he (Webb) needs to send reinforcements immediately. Upon hearing this, he ordered fifteen hundred men to be ready to march a
School Uniforms Unknown John Doe walks into a skyscraper, confident and well groomed wearing a tie, suit, and dress shoes. His confidence moves him forward, as he enters an elevator going up to the 23rd floor. He approaches his first job interview since leaving Jesuit Prep: McAllen & McAllen Law. This well groomed man graduated from Jesuit prep, which had a dress code and hair restrictions. This dress code and hair restrictions evolved young men into mature adults over a 4 year period at Jesuit.
The Chinese Room Revisited Whole forests have been wasted in the effort to refute the Chinese Room Thought Experiment proposed by Searle in 1980 and refined (really derived from axioms) in 1990. The experiment envisages a room in which an English speaker sits, equipped with a book of instructions in English. Through one window messages in Chinese are passed on to him (in the original experiment, two types of messages). He is supposed to follow the instructions and correlate the messages received
Unemployment I. Recommendations Get the Real Picture No one in Macedonia knows the real picture. How many are employed and not reported or registered? How many are registered as unemployed but really have a job? How many are part time workers ? as opposed to full time workers? How many are officially employed (de jure) ? but de facto unemployed or severely underemployed? How many are on ?indefinite? vacations, on leave without pay, etc.? The Statistics Bureau must be instructed to make the gathe
Death, Life and the Question of Identity A classical point of departure in defining Death, seems to be Life itself. Death is perceived either as a cessation of Life - or as a "transit zone", on the way to a continuation of Life by other means. While the former presents a disjunction, the latter is a continuum, Death being nothing but a corridor into another plane of existence (the hereafter). Another, logically more rigorous approach, would be to ask "Who is Dead" when Death occurs. In other wor
Richard Feynman Lee Warnock Richard Philip Feynman was born in New York City on May 11th 1918 to a middle class family that lived on the Southern tip of Manhattan. He grew up in a household where both of his parents poured into him their best qualities. His mother, Lucille, instilled in Richard a powerful sense of humor, which would be essential in forming his magnetic personality and eccentric lecturing style. His father, Melville, decided before Richard was born that if he were a boy, he would
Henry II of England Shah I. Early life A. Birth B. Family C. Education D. Marriage II. Reign A. Early difficulty B. King?s personality C. Government policies D. Thomas Becket III. Death A. Achievements B. Sons revolt C. Successor Henry II Henry II was the first of eight Plantagenet kings. He neither ignored his island kingdom nor dragged it into continental trouble. Along with Alfred, Edward I, and Elizabeth I, Henry II ranks as one of the best British monarchs. Henry II was born in Le Mans, Fra
The Distributive Justice of the Market (1) Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all. (2) Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both: (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity. " (John Rawls, "A Theory o
The Traversal of the Infinite Finiteness has to do with the existence of boundaries. Intuitively, we feel that where there is a separation, a border, a threshold ? there is bound to be at least one thing finite out of a minimum of two. This, of course, is not true. Two infinite things can share a boundary. Infinity does not imply symmetry, let alone isotropy. An entity can be infinite to its ?left? ? and bounded on its right. Moreover, finiteness can exist where no boundaries can. Take a sphere:
Internet: A Medium or a Message? The State of the Net: An Interim Report about the Future of the Internet Who are the participants who constitute the Internet? - Users - connected to the net and interacting with it - The communications lines and the communications equipment - The intermediaries (e.g. the suppliers of on-line information or access providers). - Hardware manufacturers - Software authors and manufacturers (browsers, site development tools, specific applications, smart agents, searc
Cleopatra Elizabeth Cleopatra Vll was born in 69 BC, in Alexandria, Egypt. Despite what people say today, that she was glamorous and beautiful, she was far from it. She is shown on ancient coins with a long hooked nose and masculine features. Although she was not beautiful she was clearly a very seductive woman, and she used this to further Egypt politically. She had a beautiful musical voice. It is also said that she was highly intelligent. She spoke nine different languages, and she was the fi
Paradise Found and Lost - Critique Dev ?Paradise Found and Lost? from Daniel J. Boorstin?s The Discoverers, embodies Columbus? emotions, ideas, and hopes. Boorstin, a former Librarian of Congress, leads the reader through one man?s struggles as he tries to find a Western Passage to the wealth of the East. After reading ?Paradise Found and Lost,? I was enlightened about Columbus? tenacious spirit as he repeatedly fails to find the passage to Asia. Boorstin title of this essay is quite apropos bec
Why Did Hamlet Delay Killing the King? V.A In Shakespeare?s Hamlet, the main character continually delays acting out his duty of avenging his father?s murder. This essay will discuss how Hamlet?s nature and morals (which are intensified by difficult events) prevent him from carrying out the task. In the opening scenes of the play, the Ghost of Hamlet?s late father reveals to him the true means by which King Hamlet died. The Ghost tells Hamlet that his father?s death was caused by Claudius pourin
- Name of the consignee or ?To Order? (of the shipper) together with endorsement of the shipper - Name of vessel - Port of loading, final destination and is re-loading required - Name of parties to be notified upon arrival to the port of discharge - Marks and numbers stamped on the packages - Abbreviated description of the goods (weight, number of units and volume / mass) - How many original copies of the MBL are there and is the presentation of all original copies required to in order to relea
The Happiness of Others Is there any necessary connection between our actions and the happiness of others? Disregarding for a moment the murkiness of the definitions of "actions" in philosophical literature - two types of answers were hitherto provided. Sentient Beings (referred to, in this essay, as "Humans" or "persons") seem either to limit each other - or to enhance each other's actions. Mutual limitation is, for instance, evident in game theory. It deals with decision outcomes when all the
Parsimony ? The Fourth Substance Occasionalism is a variation upon Cartesian metaphysics. The latter is the most notorious case of dualism (mind and body, for instance). The mind is a ?mental substance?. The body ? a ?material substance?. What permits the complex interactions which happen between these two disparate ?substances?? The ?unextended mind? and the ?extended body? surely cannot interact without a mediating agency, God. The appearance is that of direct interaction but this is an illusi
What Doth a Leader Make? How come a leader becomes a leader? In this article, we are not interested in the historical process but in the answer to the twin questions: what qualifies one to be a leader and why do people elect someone specific to be a leader. The immediately evident response would be that the leader addresses or is judged by his voters to be capable of addressing their needs. These could be economic needs, psychological needs, or moral needs. In all these cases, the needs are judg
The Cultural Narcissist "The new narcissist is haunted not by guilt but by anxiety. He seeks not to inflict his own certainties on others but to find a meaning in life. Liberated from the superstitions of the past, he doubts even the reality of his own existence. Superficially relaxed and tolerant, he finds little use for dogmas of racial and ethnic purity but at the same time forfeits the security of group loyalties and regards everyone as a rival for the favors conferred by a paternalistic sta
Form and Malignant Form Every type of human activity has a malignant equivalent. The pursuit of happiness, the accumulation of wealth, the exercise of power, the love of one's self are all tools in the struggle to survive and, as such, are commendable. They do, however, have malignant counterparts: pursuing pleasures (hedonism), greed and avarice as manifested in criminal activities, murderous authoritarian regimes and narcissism. What sets the malignant versions apart from the benign ones? Phen
The Murder of Oneself Those who believe in the finality of death (i.e., that there is no after-life) ? they are the ones who advocate suicide and regard it as a matter of personal choice. On the other hand, those who firmly believe in some form of existence after corporeal death ? they condemn suicide and judge it to be a major sin. Yet, rationally, the situation should have been reversed : it should have been easier for someone who believed in continuity after death to terminate this phase of e
Legitimizing Final Causes The word "telos" in ancient Greek meant: "goal, target, mission, completion, perfection". The Greeks seem to have associated the attaining of a goal with perfection. Modern scientific thought is much less sanguine about teleology, the belief that causes are preceded by their effects. The idea is less zany than it sounds. It was Aristotle who postulated the existence of four types of causes. It all started with the attempt to differentiate explanatory theories from theor
The Partiality of Wholeness Religious people believe in the existence of a supreme being. It has many attributes but two of the most striking are that it seems to both encompass and to pervade everything. Judaic sources are in the habit of saying that we all have a "share of the upper divine soul". Put more formally, we can say that we are both part of a Whole and permeated by it. But what are the relationships between the parts and the Whole? They could be either formal (a word in a sentence, f
French Revolution - Motives of Committee of Public Safety Edward Wilmoth Essay Topic: Discuss the motives of the Committee of Public Safety and the role they played in the running of France (up to 27 July 1794) ?Anarchy within, invasion without. A country cracking from outside pressure, disintegrating from internal strain. Revolution at its height? This was the country the Committee of Public Safety (?The committee?), inherited and it was announced their mission by the Convention, to ?create a v
The Napster Debate ethan 1. Background The Napster software (, launched early in 1999, allows internet users to share and download MP3 files directly from any computer connected to the Napster network. The software is used by downloading a client program from the Napster site and then connecting to the network through this software, which allows sharing (uploading and downloading) of MP3 files between all users connected to the network. While Napster does not condone copyr
Abortion Heather Years ago when a women would get pregnant she would have a baby. Today accidental pregnancies are solved by a method called abortion. With this method the newly formed fetus is basically removed from the mother?s body and destroyed. Although the whole process of having an abortion seems not especially pleasant, they seem to be popular. Many people argue that abortion is plain and simple murder. They reason that if a woman feels responsible enough to have sex, she needs to be res
An American Tragedy and the futility of the American Dream Tony Zarembski An American Tragedy is an intriguing, frighteningly realistic journey into the mind of a murderer. It is a biography of its era. And, it is also historical fiction. But what makes this novel a classic? While society has changed dramatically since 1925, Dreiser's novel, which shows the futility of "The American Dream" and the tragedies that trying to live it can cause, accurately summarizes social mores of this and any time
Relationships Unknown I. Introduction Last fall, 700,000 men gathered at our nation's Capital to focus on mending relationships. Their goals were to help men end adulterous behavior, quit abusing and neglecting the women and children in their lives, and renew their promises to their families. Knowing this, it is hard to understand why this rally would be seen as a threat rather than honorable. Imagine 700,000 men acknowledging the areas in which they've failed and wanting to take responsibility
Christian Teens Margaret Taylor Teens reflect a culture all of their own within American society. The language that they speak, music that they listen to, and many aspects of their lives differ from that of past generations (Linehan 3). Therefore, many people of older generations tend to make judgments and assumptions about teenagers. These assumptions are typically based on the manner in which teenagers speak, dress, and present themselves. Because of these generalizations, faith of many teens
Causes of The Salem Witch Craft Trials Tony Zarembski Witchcraft, Insanity, and the Ten Signs of Decay Since there never was a spurned lover stirring things up in Salem Village, and there is no evidence from the time that Tituba practiced Caribbean black magic, yet these trials and executions actually still took place, how can you explain why they occurred? The Salem Witchcraft Trials began not as an act of revenge against an ex-lover, as they did in The Crucible, but as series of seemingly unli
The Influences Parents have on thier Children Puneet Bansal Throughout our lives we're influenced and taught by many. It can have an effect on the way we view problems and events within public boundaries. One of the most important and most effective influences children have in their lives occurs from their parents. The parents of a child can have both a positive and a negative influence on their lives. In this novel there are two very good examples of how parents can be an important influence on
Democracy vs Dictatorship heather Imagine the next time you step into the voting booth your ballot only lists one candidate to choose from. Or perhaps your ballot lists four candidates, but they are all from the Liberal party. Dictatorships are one party political systems that are ruled by one leader or an elite group of people under the principle of authoritarianism. Some feel that dictatorships are the most effective form of government because decisions are made quickly and extreme nationalism
Euthanasia in Australia jess Euthanasia and the 1995 Rights of the Terminally Ill Act When we hear the phrase voluntary euthanasia people generally think of one of two things: the active termination of life at the patient's or the Nazi extermination program of murder. Many people have beliefs about whether euthanasia is right or wrong, often without being able to define it clearly. Some people take an extreme view, while many fall somewhere between the two camps. The derivation means gentle and
Daniel Webster Anonymous Daniel Webster was the ninth born son of Ebenezer Webster, who was a farmer and tavern-keeper. He was born in Salisbury, New Hampshire on January 18th in 1782. He was nicknamed ?Black Dan.? When he was a child he was mostly bedridden, many thought he wouldn?t make it. He was forced to read. He fell in love with books. When he was just fifteen he entered Dartmouth College. After he graduated he taught for a little while before working in a law office in Boston. He made ov
Consequences and Remedies of Din in the Scarlet Letter Becky The Scarlet Letter shows many types of sin. Some is only sin in the Puritan eye, some is internally blamed sin and some is sin only defined back in the time period of pre-Romanticism. Three main characters; Hester Prynne, Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale, and Roger Chillingworth are the 'sinners' of the Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. Nathaniel Hawthorn gives each one very different a consequence and remedy for each ones sin. Heste
The Hidden Reasons for Salem Accepting Abagail's Stories Jeff Salem Witchcraft Trials Throughout society and throughout literature, vulnerable communities under certain conditions can be easily taken advantage of by a person or group of people presumed innocent. In the play, ?The Crucible? by Arthur Miller, there are three main factors that allowed the girls fallacious stories to be believed: Salem?s flawed court system, its lack of diversity in beliefs and religion, and the lack of a strong lea
Colonial Rule Jennifer The English colonies set up forms of representative government consisting of an appointed governor and a legislature, a law making body elected by voters. Having an appointed governor and a legislature sometimes led to tensions. The governor and the assembly frequently disagreed over taxes, the selection of other goverment officials, and defense of the colony. Economic poicies also caused tensions between England and the colonies. In the 1660s the English Parliament's Navi