The objective of this essay is to provide an explanation of Leonardo da Vinci?s life and work as an artist in context with his time spent in Milan. Following an initial introduction to Leonardo?s formative years in Florence (and his apprenticeship to the sculptor and painter Andrea del Verrocchio , 1435-88), I will attempt to explain the significance of his presence in Milan with detailed descriptions of his work there. Giorgio Vasari (1511-74) was also an artist and architect, but is perhaps better known for his book on the lives of well known painters, sculptors and architects (published 1550; from Cimbue to his autobiography which was included in a revised edition):
?Vasari's book offers his personal evaluation of the works of these artists, as well as discussions on the state of the arts. His easy, natural writing style helped to make his book one of the most enduring of art histories .?
His reflections on Leonardo?s life include insight specifically relating to his unusual character and the intellectual merit of his life?s work. Using this evidence I hope to provide valid observations on Leonardo?s significance as a father of the High Renaissance .
Leonardo (who was christened Lionardo, the name to which Vasari refers) was born near the small town of Vinci on 15th April 1452. The town was situated in the Florentine province of Italy, where his father, Ser Piero was a notary. According to Vasari, Leonardo was somewhat of a child prodigy in his studies, but he showed little commitment to one single area, constantly finding new interests in other subjects:
?Thus in arithmetic, during the few months that he studied it, he made such progress that he frequently confounded his master by continually raising doubts and difficulties. He devoted some time to music ? Yet though he studied so many different things , he never neglected design and working in relief, those being the things which appealed to his fancy more than any other.?
Being very conscious of his son?s talents, Ser Piero moved to Florence with Leonardo and his wife (not Leonardo?s mother, as he was illegitimate and never took his father?s name) to utilise them professionally. Being a friend of the artist and sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-88), Ser Piero convinced him to recruit Leonardo as an apprentice by the promise shown in his work. Verrocchio strongly encouraged da Vinci, and his admiration of his student's talents convinced Verrocchio to allow Leonardo to participate in the creation of his own paintings and sculptures.
According to Vasari, Leonardo was highly skilled in many fields of design, he ?prepared many architectural plans and elevations, and he was the first, though so young, to propose a navigable canal of the Arno River from Pisa to Florence.? Vasari talks at length on the subject of Leonardo?s early drawing skills, delving with some depth into the aptitude of his draughtsmanship, often indicating that his works were ?executed like a master,? which he became officially in 1478. Drawing may have been a craft in which he gleaned experience directly from Verrocchio, who?s own biography by Vasari states:
?(His drawings were) made with great patience and knowledge, among which are heads of women, with graceful manner and hair arrangements that, because of their exceeding beauty, Lionardo da Vinci always imitated.?
Although in 1472 he entered the San Luca guild of painters in Florence, which would indicate that he had attained a degree of professional independence, he remained with Andrea del Verrocchio until 1480. Of his earliest works, one that he painted as an assistant is the angel holding clothes, kneeling on the left of Verrocchio's picture ? The Baptism of Christ ? (c.1472-1475). Verrocchio, as indicated by Vasari, was so impressed by the implications of his pupil's genius that ?would never afterwards touch colours, chagrined that a child should know more than he.?
Since Leonardo?s earliest large-scale work ?The Adoration of the Magi? (begun 1481 ? unfinished), he had gained a reputation for leaving works incomplete, perhaps fittingly in the nature of this, his first commission an altarpiece for the chapel of the Palazzo Vecchio , the Florentine town hall, was never executed. Conveniently, Vasari attempts to provide an explanation for this ?force of habit?:
?His knowledge of art, indeed, prevented him from finishing many things which he had begun, for he felt that his hand would be unable to realise the perfect creations of his imagination, as his mind formed such difficult,